Penalty Enforcement

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Mon Dec 05, 2016 5:54 am

This will be a rather lengthy thread that we will work through slowly. I found a document written (in 2011) by an official from New Jersey named Bob Masucci that clearly describes enforcing penalties and the reasoning used to do so. Certainly if you take the time to digest this document you will have a much better understanding of Penalty Enforcement.

Introduction
Fouls are an integral part of every football game. Often, the result of a game turns on a foul and a team’s decision of whether or not to accept the penalty for the transgression. In almost every case, that decision will hinge on the referee’s knowledge of the penalty options and his ability to clearly and succinctly explain them to the offended team’s captain. Referees are not infallible, contrary to some widely held opinions (primarily among referees)-. They can make mistakes. Because of this, it is each official’s responsibility to understand the basic fundamentals of penalty enforcement and to offer his help if he believes that an enforcement error is about to occur. This ensures that the game flows smoothly and guarantees that neither team will gain an undeserved advantage because of an enforcement error.


In order to properly administer the penalty for a foul (or series of fouls), the referee must know what foul occurred, when it occurred, where it occurred, and who committed it. Knowing these facts allows the referee to translate that knowledge into a rules-based set of options for the captain of the offended team to consider.


While developing a sound officiating philosophy and the ability to exercise proper judgment in a game might be considered the most difficult skills facing the newer official, knowing how to properly enforce penalties might well run a close second in the list of challenges faced by the novice official. A full understanding of penalty enforcement will not come overnight. It’s not easy. It will require considerable study and experience. The real test will be your ability to properly rule, not on a test, but rather in the heat of battle when a game is on the line, the environment is something less than cordial, and you don’t have the luxury of time—or a rule book. This book attempts to take all aspects of the Federation rules related to penalty enforcement, reorder them as necessary, and translate them into language which is just as precise as that of the rule book but maybe slightly more understandable.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Mon Dec 05, 2016 5:58 am

Types of Fouls

The 2016 National Federation Rules Book identifies nine distinct types of fouls in rule NF 2-16-2:

Dead ball—a dead ball foul occurs in the time interval after a down has ended and before the ball is next snapped or free kicked. This includes fouls which occur just before the snap—like encroachment or false starts—as well as those which occur just after the ball becomes dead, like a “late hit” personal foul.

Double—a double foul occurs when one or more live ball fouls (other than nonplayer or unsportsmanlike fouls) are committed by each team at such a time that the penalties offset and the prior down is replayed with no enforcement of any penalty. There are some specific times when there are live ball fouls committed by each team when the penalties do not offset and are not technically double fouls. But more on that later.

Flagrant—a flagrant foul is one so severe or dangerous that player safety is significantly and recklessly compromised. Likewise, an unsportsmanlike violation that is particularly vulgar or persistent may qualify as a flagrant foul as well. [Note: Either a contact foul or a non-contact foul may qualify as “flagrant.”]

Live ball—Very simply, a live ball foul occurs during a down, i.e. between the snap (or free kick) and the moment at which the ball becomes dead.

Multiple—A multiple foul occurs when two or more live ball fouls (other than non-player or unsportsmanlike) are committed during a down by same team at such a time that the offended team is permitted a choice of penalties. Only one penalty can be accepted by the offended team.

Nonplayer or unsportsmanlike—these fouls are by their very nature noncontact fouls. They may occur while the ball is dead or during the down. Specifically, they exclude illegal participation and must not influence the play in progress. Nonplayer fouls are those committed by persons other than the 22 players legally in the game at the time of the foul. They are committed by coaches, substitutes, team attendants, etc.  Unsportsmanlike fouls may be committed by players and nonplayers alike. For purposes of enforcement, both nonplayer and unsportsmanlike fouls are treated like dead ball fouls regardless of when they occurred.

Player—a player foul is a foul (other than unsportsmanlike) committed by one of the 22 players legally in the game at the time of the foul. Sometimes it’s just referred to as a “foul.” When you see the word “foul” used alone, this is typically what’s meant. They include, for example, holding, pass interference, grasping the facemask, roughing the kicker, etc.

Post-scrimmage kick—Post-scrimmage kick fouls may occur only during downs in which a legal scrimmage kick occurs. Specifically, they are fouls by R that meet several criteria which we will discuss in the section on special enforcements.

Simultaneous with the snap—Fouls that occur simultaneously with the snap happen when an act, perfectly legal prior to the down during the dead ball period, becomes a foul only by virtue of the ball actually being snapped or free kicked. Typically, these involve illegal offensive team movements and formations, substitution infractions, or violations of other administrative requirements which are illegal at the snap—but not before.

Knowing the type of foul is critical for determining the options to be presented. Another important thing to note: These types are not necessarily mutually exclusive; there is overlap. For example, a live ball foul may be a player foul, or it may be part of a double foul. And any foul can be of the flagrant variety. The important thing here is to fully understand the definitions.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Tue Dec 06, 2016 4:49 am

Basic Enforcement Fundamentals

According the Federation rules, there are some basics that need to be understood:


No foul causes loss of the ball. While certain circumstances related to when the foul occurs may indeed result in turning the ball over to the offended team, it is not the foul itself that results in this. For example, a foul committed by the offense on 4th down that also involves loss of down will turn the ball over to the defense upon acceptance. But that’s just a coincidence resulting from when (on what down) the foul occurred and the offense’s failure to advance the ball beyond the line to gain in the allotted four downs.


No live ball foul causes the ball to become dead. Another way of saying it…no live ball foul should ever cause you to blow the whistle. However, dead ball fouls do cause the ball to remain dead. Officials should not permit the ball to become live when a dead ball foul occurs just prior to the snap or free kick. Likewise, should a play begin immediately after a dead ball foul occurs, all officials should be on their whistles to stop any further action and kill the play.


The distance penalty for any foul may be declined, while any other penalty associated with the foul can be accepted. For example, on defensive pass interference, the offense may accept the penalty and the automatic first down that accompanies it, but refuse to have the fifteen yards marched off against the defense. Likewise, a team may accept a penalty and have a down replayed but not have any distance penalty assessed. You will rarely see this during your entire officiating career—one, because the offended team would most likely be giving up yardage, and two, because almost no coach knows that he has that option.


If the penalty is declined or if there is a double foul, there is no loss of yardage. Either continue play from the succeeding spot (if the penalty is declined) or return the ball to the previous spot for a replay of the prior down (if a double foul occurred).


In case of a double foul where the penalties automatically offset, the captains should not be consulted because they have no choice to make. Speaking to the captains in such a situation will only cause confusion. Rather let your wing officials convey the appropriate information directly to the sidelines as required.


The captain's choice of options may not be revoked once it is made. A piece of advice: Make sure that you don’t “hear” a captain’s choice until you’ve fully explained his options. Don’t allow him to make a fool of himself. A common practice of many referees is to offer what you consider the most advantageous option first. If the situation is complicated and the choice is not very obvious, don’t be afraid to face the offended team’s sideline, move closer to the coaches’ box, and speak loudly enough for the team’s coach to hear you, or even give the coach himself the options. Also, if the situation permits, having a wing official near the head coach to assist in relaying the options is a good idea. In cases where the choice is obvious, some referees might not even offer the choices. He might just ask the offended captain for confirmation of the obvious choice. For example, after an interception, a referee might ask Team B, “You want to decline their illegal motion foul and keep the ball, right?” Another technique to use if you feel the captain has made the wrong choice is to say, “Captain, maybe I didn’t explain this well…,” and then repeat the options. However, if the captain insists, you’ve got to go with whatever he chooses.


A decision on whether to accept or decline a penalty must be made before any charged time-out is granted either team. However, if acceptance of a penalty results in a choice of how the offended team will put the ball in play, that decision may be deferred until after the time out is over, or may even be changed after reconsideration during the time out. For example, suppose that Team K commits kick catching interference. Team R must decide prior to a time out whether they will accept the penalty and if so, whether they will penalize K from the previous spot and replay, or accept an awarded fair catch at the spot of the foul. If they accept the awarded fair catch, Federation rules allow them to either snap or free kick from that spot. But that decision (whether to snap or free kick) does not need to be made prior to the time out. Frequently near the end of either half where time is critical, a player or the head coach will be urgently asking for a time-out, even though there is a flag on the field. Calmly tell the captain that there is an official’s time out in progress and that after that’s completed and the penalty is disposed of, you will revisit his request for a charged time-out.


When a live ball foul by one team is followed by a dead ball foul by the opponent, or when dead balls fouls are committed by opponents, the penalties are administered separately and in the order in which they occurred. Don’t mistake these situations for a double foul. Take them one at a time in the order in which they occurred. Also, in the case of dead ball fouls by each team, unless you are absolutely certain which foul occurred first, don’t “make up” an order of enforcement. The order of enforcement could very likely affect the awarding of a new series, or if near either goal line might lead to a situation where one team is assessed the full penalty yardage, while the opponent is only penalized half the distance. In such cases, when you are not certain of the order, assess no penalty yardage. Just signal the fouls by each team and leave the succeeding spot where it is. But don’t “wipe them out” signifying offsetting fouls.

When the same team commits a live ball foul followed by one or more dead ball fouls, all fouls may be penalized. Don’t mistake such a scenario for a multiple foul. Again, take them one at a time in order. Dispose of the live ball foul first; then deal with the dead ball foul(s).


Enforcement of a penalty cannot take the ball more than half the distance from the enforcement spot to the offending team’s goal line. If the prescribed penalty would cause this to happen, the ball is placed halfway from the enforcement spot to the goal line. By rule, this can only happen when the ball is inside either 30-yard line.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Wed Dec 07, 2016 4:56 am

Down After Penalty

In most cases, following enforcement of a penalty for a live ball foul, the previous down will be replayed. However, there are some exceptions, primarily those fouls that include a loss of down and those which include the awarding of an automatic first down. Another exception to this principle exists for certain fouls that occur during scrimmage kicks. Likewise, fouls by the opponents of a team scoring a touchdown, a field goal, or a successful try may also result in an exception to this general rule. We will discuss all of these exceptions in later sections. For now, understand that ‘Loss of down’ is a short way to say “loss of the right to replay a down.” The offending team really doesn’t lose a down. They simply are deprived of the opportunity to replay it even though the penalty for their foul has been accepted.


Here are the specific fouls that include loss of down as an additional penalty:


Illegally handing the ball forward.
Illegal forward pass.
Forward pass interference (Offensive).
Illegal touching of legal forward pass by an ineligible behind, in, or beyond the neutral zone.


[Note: If one of these fouls occurs after a change of team possession, the loss of down provision of the penalty doesn’t apply. A new series always begins with a first down. Similarly, if after penalty enforcement, Team A still has the ball beyond the line to gain, the loss of down provision of the penalty is likewise ignored.]


And there are specific fouls for which an automatic first down (new series) is awarded in addition to any penalty yardage:

Roughing the kicker or holder.
Roughing the passer.
Roughing the snapper.
Forward pass interference (Defensive).


If the penalty for a foul is declined, the number of the next down will be the same as if the foul had not occurred. If a double foul occurs, the down will be replayed, i.e. the number of the next down will be the same as that of the down in which the double foul occurred and the line to gain will remain unchanged. Additionally, some fouls that occur during downs that result in a change of possession, and any live ball unsportsmanlike or non-player fouls are also exceptions to this “repeat the down” principle. We’ll be referencing them often throughout the book.

“Clean Hands Principle”


Two basic principles govern penalty enforcement rules:

The offending team should not gain any advantage by committing a foul
The offending team should not be forced to give up any advantage they legally obtained prior to their foul.


The “clean hands” principle is a perfect example of these two governing principles in action during a play that involves a change of possession. It is designed to allow the team in possession at the end of the down to keep the ball provided that they did not foul prior to the final change of possession. This ensures, as best we can, that their foul had no role in helping them gain possession. That is, as long as they got the ball before they fouled, they will be allowed to keep it. We refer to this as getting the ball “with clean hands.” In such a case they will be subject to any penalties arising from their post-possession fouls, but they will retain the ball. A good example: A12 throws a forward pass. B3 intercepts and begins to return. A team B player holds an opponent during that return. B may keep the ball after enforcement of the holding penalty since he had not fouled prior to gaining possession, i.e. team B got the ball with “clean hands.” Should Team A so choose, the holding penalty will be enforced against B according to standard enforcement principles. Also, if R fouls during a scrimmage kick play, and that foul is otherwise subject to post scrimmage kick enforcement (see the section on Special Enforcements), R will also be able to retain the ball even though their foul technically may have occurred prior to the final change of possession.


Another application of the “clean hands principle” occurs when there are fouls by each team during a down where there is a change of possession. The procedure is a bit more complicated than the one above, and we’ll discuss it in further detail in the Special Enforcements section.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Thu Dec 08, 2016 4:50 am

Types of Plays


One of the fundamental concepts used in penalty enforcement for live ball player fouls is the concept of “type of play.” When a live ball player foul like holding, roughing the kicker, or pass interference occurs during a down, you need to determine what type of play was in progress when the foul occurred. Don’t confuse type of play with the kind of offensive play (pass, draw, sweep, etc.) that took place during the down. There are two types of play defined for the purposes of penalty enforcement: loose ball plays, and running plays. A single down may consist of one of these or a combination of them. Here are the definitions:


The term ‘loose ball play’ might lead one to incorrectly assume that the ball is literally ‘loose’ when the foul occurs. You’ll see below that’s not necessarily true.

A loose ball play is action during:

A free kick or scrimmage kick up until the point when the kick ends. Actually, certain fouls by R during a scrimmage kick are really an exception to this statement.

A legal forward pass. (Note: action during an illegal forward pass is not considered to be part of a loose ball play)

A backward pass (including the snap), an illegal kick, or a fumble made by team A from in or behind the neutral zone before any change of team possession.

Any run(s) which precedes the legal kick, legal forward pass, backward pass, or fumble described here in a, b, or c. Said another way, if a legal kick, or a legal forward pass, or a fumble, illegal kick, or backward pass from behind the neutral zone actually occurs, all action leading up to these things is considered part of that loose ball play. Please note…this run is only considered part of a loose ball play if the run is followed by a legal kick, legal forward pass, or by a backward pass, illegal kick, or fumble behind the neutral zone. If not, all of this action is considered to be part of a running play (see below).


A running play is any other action not included in the definition of a loose ball play. Note: If a runner fumbles the ball or throws a backward or forward pass from beyond the neutral zone, this loose ball is considered part of that prior running play. Even though the ball is technically “loose,” this interval is considered part of the prior running play for the purposes of penalty enforcement. Once that loose ball is caught or recovered, the prior running play concludes and a new running play may begin.

A down may consist of a loose ball play only, a series of one or more running plays, or a loose ball play followed by one or more running plays. If a down consists of more than one running play, each of them for the purpose of penalty enforcement is treated distinctly and is referred to as a “related run.” One other thing…if a down consists of a loose ball play, there will be only one of them, and it must occur in the beginning portion of the down, i.e. before any running play and prior to any change of possession that might occur.

During any running play, the end of a related run is:

Where the ball becomes dead in the runner’s possession like when he’s tackled, or where he steps out of bounds, or where his forward progress is stopped.

Where the runner loses possession, but only if his run is followed by a loose ball, e.g. when he fumbles the ball or throws a pass from beyond the neutral zone. One implication of this definition is that if a runner legally hands the ball to a teammate, it is not considered the end of one related run and the beginning of another. Both runners’ possessions are considered to be parts the same running play for the purpose of penalty enforcement—just as if there was no handoff at all.

The spot of the catch or recovery when the momentum rule is in effect. (See NF 8-5-2a Exception for more information on this.)

For some enrichment material on Types of Plays, see Appendix A at the conclusion of this document.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by SGT on Mon Dec 12, 2016 4:59 am

Basic Spots


If a foul occurs during a down, the basic spot of enforcement is determined by the type of play that was occurring at the time of the foul. The basic spot can be thought of as the “starting point” for penalty enforcement. It is a point of reference from which you will ultimately determine the correct enforcement spot.

The basic spot is the previous spot, i.e. the spot where the ball was last snapped or free-kicked:

For any foul which occurs simultaneously with the snap or free kick. We discuss this type of foul in more detail later.

For a foul which occurs during a loose ball play. There are two “special enforcements” exceptions to this enforcement: (a) when the foul is roughing the passer, and (b) for certain fouls by R during scrimmage kicks. We’ll discuss these two exceptions later in the section on Special Enforcements.


The basic spot is the spot where the related run ends (see above) for a foul which occurs during a running play.


The basic spot is the succeeding spot, i.e. where the ball would next be snapped or free-kicked:

For any unsportsmanlike foul whether it occurs during a live ball or dead ball

For a dead ball foul.

For a nonplayer foul—even if it occurred during the down.

When the final result of a running play is a touchback and the basic spot would have been the end of the run in the end zone. (See play #7 in Appendix B for a practical application of this principle)


Specific Enforcements for Fouls

Dead Ball Fouls
Dead ball fouls are always enforced from the succeeding spot, i.e. the spot where the ball would next be snapped or free kicked had no such foul occurred. These fouls may occur just prior to a snap or free kick (encroachment, false start, snap infraction) or just after the ball becomes dead (late hit--personal fouls). Likewise, unsportsmanlike fouls and non-player fouls occurring during a down but which have no material impact on the play in progress may technically be live-ball fouls, but are treated as dead ball fouls for the purpose of enforcement. For that reason you may hear such fouls described as “live ball fouls treated as dead ball fouls.”

If a dead ball foul occurs prior to a free-kick down, the down to be played after enforcement will usually be another free-kick down. If it occurs before or after a scrimmage down, the number of the next down will be the same as if the foul hadn’t occurred, unless of course enforcement of the penalty for the dead ball foul before the down takes the offense to a position in advance of the line to gain. Additionally, if a dead ball foul occurs immediately after a down (before the next “ready-for-play” indication by the referee), and a new series is to be awarded, the line to gain is not established, i.e. the chains are not set, until after the penalty for the foul is enforced. If however, a dead ball foul occurs after the ready-for-play, the line to gain remains fixed where it was at the ready-for-play. See plays #10 & #22 in Appendix B. Note: these last two principles have nothing at all to do with determining whether or not a new series is awarded. They only refer to setting the chains after a new series is awarded.

Double Fouls
It is a double foul if both teams commit fouls, other than unsportsmanlike or non-player, during the same live ball period in which there is no change of team possession. In such cases, the penalties offset (cancel each other out) and the prior down is replayed. It becomes an old-fashioned sandlot “do-over.”

If however, there is a change of possession and both teams have fouled during the down, it requires additional analysis to determine whether a double foul has occurred. Let’s use a simple change of possession with the team designations A and B for this analysis where team B is the team in final possession:

If there is change of team possession and Team B fouled prior to gaining possession, you will indeed have a double foul. The rationale here is that the change of possession may have occurred because of Team B’s foul. The rules will not allow them to benefit by fouling. There is one notable exception to this rule occurring during scrimmage kicks. We will discuss that in the last paragraph below.

If a change of possession occurs and both teams have fouled during the down, team B may retain the ball if they got it with clean hands, but they must decline the penalty for all of Team A’s foul(s) (other than unsportsmanlike or non-player), whether Team A’s fouls occurred before or after the change of possession. After Team B’s decision to decline Team A’s penalty, Team A is given the option of accepting or declining the penalty for Team B’s foul. In almost all cases, it will be to Team A’s obvious advantage to accept. If however, Team B insists on accepting the penalty for any of its opponent’s fouls, it is a double foul, they give up the ball, and the previous down will be replayed. Why might Team B choose to give the ball back to Team A for a replay? See Play # 17 in Appendix B for a possible answer. So as a result of this analysis, three situations may occur:

All fouls offset as a result of the double foul (can happen occasionally)

There is a penalty enforced against Team B and none against Team A (by far the most common occurrence)

All penalties are declined by both teams (remote chance). Please note that if both Team B and then Team A decline the penalties for their opponents’ fouls, this is not an offsetting foul (double foul) situation. It is simply treated as a play where no fouls occurred. The importance of this distinction relates to what will happen if this situation occurs on the last timed down of a period (see “Extension of Periods” on p. 21).

In all double fouls, the penalties offset, there is no loss of yardage for either team, and the prior down is replayed from the previous spot.

Also, if the change of possession occurs during a scrimmage kick, R may retain possession of the ball if their only foul is subject to post scrimmage kick enforcement even though technically it occurred before the final change of possession (See Play #27 in Appendix B.). As an enforcement aid, Appendix C provides a decision tree for determining the correct options when each team fouls during a down.

Multiple Fouls When two or more live ball fouls are committed by the same team during the same down, this is referred to as a multiple foul. Only one penalty may be enforced, except when one of those foul(s) is for unsportsmanlike conduct or is a non-player foul. In such cases, the penalty (or penalties) for unsportsmanlike conduct/non-player fouls is administered from the succeeding spot that is established by the acceptance or declination of the penalty for the other live ball foul. In simple terms, it’s enforced as if it was a dead ball foul occurring after the play. When only one penalty is to be enforced, the offended captain may choose which one it shall be, or he may decline all penalties.

One other principle…A dead ball foul is never coupled with a live ball foul or another dead ball foul to create a double or multiple foul.

Simultaneous with the Snap Certain fouls involve actions by a team which are legal during the dead ball period and only become illegal by virtue of the fact that the snap has occurred. For example, an offensive team may be poised to commit an illegal formation foul (only six players on the line, for example) but until the snap occurs, they always have the opportunity to shift another player onto the line making the formation legal or to call a time out to regroup. Therefore, you cannot flag it as a dead ball foul. You must wait until the ball is snapped. Hence, it is the snap that causes the formation to become illegal. And since no foul causes the ball to become dead, you must let the play continue to its logical conclusion, i.e. until the ball becomes dead by rule. The following fouls are deemed to have occurred simultaneously with the snap:

Illegal motion

Illegal shift

Illegal position or formation (player neither on line or in backfield, less than seven players on line, linemen locking legs except for C and G's)

Most Illegal substitution fouls

Illegal participation when 12 or more players are participating at the snap

Illegal numbering

Penalties for fouls that occur simultaneously with the snap—if accepted—are always enforced from the previous spot.

Player Fouls

Now comes the fun part…enforcing the live ball player foul like holding, clipping, grasping the face mask, roughing the snapper, kicker, holder, or passer, pass interference, ineligible down field, illegal forward pass, and a host of others. This is where you earn your money! Enforcement of these fouls hinges on something referred to as the “all-but-one” principle. It in turn is based upon the fundamental principles that (1) no team should benefit from committing a foul, and (2) a team that fouls during a down should be entitled to whatever benefit (yardage, for example) they might have achieved legally prior to committing their foul(s).

Some definitions and principles might be in order: The “offense” is the team in possession of a live ball; the “defense” is their opponents. Team A (or K) is the offense at the beginning of a down; Team B (or R) of course is the defense. During the course of the down, however, the offense/defense designations will flip if there is a change of team possession like an interception, a fumble recovery, or a free or scrimmage kick return. However, the team labels (A, B, K, or R) will not change.
avatar
SGT
Admin

Posts : 22
Join date : 2016-11-30
Age : 52
Location : Rockford

View user profile http://nfhs-rules-talk.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Penalty Enforcement

Post by Sponsored content


Sponsored content


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum